How the INTU SDK Enables dEOAs

A Deeper Dive into Distributed Externally Owned Accounts

1. Understanding the Core Concepts

  • Distributed Externally Owned Accounts (dEOAs):
    • Think of dEOAs as advanced versions of traditional blockchain accounts, with an emphasis on decentralization.
    • They have no private keys. Instead, their "ownership" and control are spread across multiple participants via cryptographic means.
  • Proposers and Participants:
    • These are the stakeholders in a dEOA. While participants represent the collective identity of a dEOA, any of them can become a proposer to initiate actions for the dEOA.
    • Whether members of a DAO or individual accounts, participants use traditional EOAs to interact and manage their position within the dEOA.
  • Key Shares:
    • Each participant holds a key share, intrinsically linked to the dEOA.
    • Alone, these key shares can't control the dEOA. When combined with others, they give authoritative power over the dEOA's actions.
  • Threshold Signatures:
    • The gold standard of dEOA activity validation.
    • Not every participant needs to sign every action. Instead, once a pre-set majority (or threshold) is reached, the action is authenticated.
    • This sophisticated approach is more scalable than traditional multisignatures.
  • Communication & Security:
    • By design, the protocol assumes all communication could potentially be public and vulnerable. The core design counters this with advanced encryption and on-chain data storage.
    • Developers have the flexibility to leverage other decentralized channels like LibP2P or even conventional channels like SMS.

2. Account Creation: The Genesis of a dEOA

  • Pre-requisites:
    • Each dEOA participant needs a standard EOA.
    • These standard accounts (often as simple as a browser wallet) can be created via the SDK.
    • The protocol requires public addresses of these accounts to birth a dEOA.
  • Initiating a dEOA:
    • The protocol is democratic. Anyone with the requisite public addresses can propose a dEOA.
    • Once proposed, the protocol oversees the heavy lifting. The dEOA’s public address is returned to participants upon successful creation.
  • Onboarding to a dEOA:
    • Participants receive an invitation in INTU-integrated applications.
    • Developers leveraging the SDK can embed this mechanism seamlessly within their decentralized applications (dApps).
    • On acceptance, the protocol carries out the necessary under-the-hood tasks.

3. Signature Formation: Giving Voice to a dEOA

  • Initiating an Action:
    • To breathe life into a dEOA, actions need approval, which is granted via threshold signatures.
    • Any participant can kickstart this process by proposing a signature, backed by their key share.
  • Co-signing Proposals:
    • Active participants receive notifications for co-signing.
    • If consensus is reached (as per the set threshold), the action goes live. If not, it remains dormant.

4. Revolutionary Key Resharing: A New Dimension in Security

  • What is Key Resharing?:
    • At its core, key resharing periodically redistributes power among dEOA participants. It's a dynamic, cryptographic method to enhance security and adaptability.
    • Key resharing can:
      • Recover compromised accounts.
      • Facilitate the dynamic addition/removal of participants.
      • Periodically reset security, enhancing the account’s resistance to potential threats.
  • Initiating a Reshare:
    • Much like a transaction proposal, key resharing starts with a suggestion.
    • It requires a distinct threshold, often more significant than standard transactions, ensuring broader consensus for resharing activities.
  • Participation in Resharing:
    • For participants, the resharing approval process mimics that of transaction validation.
    • Upon consensus, the protocol rejuvenates the dEOA with new key shares, keeping its integrity intact.

5. Account Management: Fine-Tuning the dEOA

  • The INTU SDK doesn’t just stop at creating and managing dEOAs. It allows participants to:
    • Alter signature and resharing thresholds.
    • Access the comprehensive history and present state of dEOA participants.